The greatest genocide during WWII, in proportion to a nation's population, took place, not in Nazi Germany but in the Nazi-created puppet state of Croatia. There in the years 1941-45 some 750,000 Serbs, 60,000 Jews and 26,000 Gypsies - men, women and children - perished in a GIGANTIC holocaust...
Have you ever wondered what is wrong with those people who live in the nation states that used to be known collectively as Yugoslavia? The savagery displayed by the various ethnic and religious groups against one another calls to mind the atrocities charged to the regimes of monsters such as Adolph Hitler, Josef Stalin, Caligula, etc. Why can't they get along? After all, we live in ecumenical times, or so claims the Roman Church and those who shelter in the shadow of her umbrella.
What is at the root of the vicious and seemingly unending warfare in that Balkan region? Is it racial? Religious? Territorial? Or a combination of these?
A look at the social history of the Balkans might help the reader to understand the depth of bitterness that continues to fuel enduring hatreds in the region. Equally important, I believe, is the clear example of what can happen in a nation where no law prevents the Roman Catholic Church from the free exercise of her corporate will. I caution the sensitive reader that some of historical evidence I shall present in this paper will be shocking and graphic. The sources I draw upon include contemporary testimony before war crimes tribunals, statements of survivors and perpetrators, etc. At the end of the paper, after the endnotes, I provide a bibliography for those who might care to research the issues more fully.
Some 3200 years ago, the Illyrians, antecedents of modern day Albanians, made their way into the region now known as the Balkans. Albanians living in Kosovar refer to this fact in support their historical claims to the area.
It wasn't until the 6th century AD that Southern Slavs began moving into the area. Before long they were followed by waves of Slovenes, Croats, Serbs and Bulgars. Bulgaria and Macedonia were settled around 600 AD and this led to another nationality claim. Bulgarians argue that the language of Macedonia is closely related to their own, which means that people living in Macedonia should be considered Bulgarians, not Serbs.
By the beginning of the 9th century, Balkan Croatians had become vassals of the Holy Roman Empire. Frankish missionaries arrived on the scene and began molding Croatia into a Roman Catholic nation. In 879 AD, Pope John VIII officially recognized the Croatian state.
In an interesting sidebar, it was in the 9th century that Rome granted Croatia the very remarkable privilege of permitting her priests to celebrate the Mass in the vernacular. Another special consideration extended to Croatian Catholics was that their sacral literature was written in their own language. Until Vatican II, the Croats were the only Catholics who did not use the Latin liturgy.
The Serbs, being closer to the Byzantine Empire, joined with many of the other Slavic nations in converting to Orthodox Christianity. The churches in these nations looked to Constantinople for leadership.
Relations between Serbs and Croats over the centuries have in many ways mirrored those between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches.
From the 4th century on, there were periodic outbreaks of tension between Rome and Constantinople. Usually, doctrinal differences were at the root of these flare-ups. Some of the issues the churches disagreed on included allowing married men into the priesthood, using unleavened bread in the Eucharist and papal supremacy. The Greek Patriarch Photius began moving his church away from Rome in 879 AD, but it was the Patriarch Cerularius who actually severed ties with Rome in 1054 AD. This was accomplished under a hail of anathemas rained down upon the principal negotiators of both churches.
By the 10th century, Croatia had become a kingdom and, in 1102, she united with Hungary, though she did retain some autonomy.
Stephan Nemanja of Raska led a successful revolt against Byzantine rule in 1172 AD. When Raska joined with the principality of Zeta in that same year, the first Serbian state was formed. In less that 100 years, the new nation had become an affluent kingdom.
Shortly after taking his seat on Peter's Throne, Innocent III began calling for a crusade to recapture the holy city of Jerusalem. It took a few years to round up a force sufficient to the task, but in 1201 AD, a large body of Flemish and French crusaders gathered near Venice. They planned to invade Egypt, believing that victory there would be the key to retaking Jerusalem.
There was a problem, however. The crusaders couldn't pay for the trip across the Mediterranean. So they made a deal with the Venetians. A few years previously, Hungary had seized the Venetian port of Zara, on the Adriatic. Venice wanted its satellite city back. This was the deal offered the Frankish army: Take Zara for us and we'll take you to Egypt.
Pope Innocent III didn't like this idea at all and ordered the army not to move against Zara. The crusaders ignored their pope and laid siege to the city. Innocent III excommunicated the whole bunch, but this did not stop them. As it turned out, capturing Zara was no big thing - the city surrendered after only a few days' siege.
The Pope tried to get the crusaders back on track and moving toward Palestine but they had other ideas. Excommunicated and thereby free of papal control, the crusaders and Venetians abandoned their plans to move on Egypt and instead attacked Constantinople, the wealthiest Christian city in the world.
For three days following the fall of Constantinople on April 13, 1204, Crusaders and Venetians ran wild in the fallen city, raping and pillaging. In their greed for riches, Christian warriors and clergy spared neither church nor palace. When order had been restored, the crusaders and Venetians divided the spoils and created their own empire in the ruins of Byzantium. Baldwin, Count of Flanders was the new emperor. Venice now owned the ports of Thrace, the Peleponnesus and the islands. The Marquis of Montferrat took possession of Thessalonica and Macedonia and was made a king. In all, some 600 nobles and knights were given fiefs in the new French speaking, Roman Catholic empire.
What was left of the Byzantine government moved to Nicea, as did a number of Greek bishops who abandoned their churches to Latin ordinaries. What had been Greek convents became Cistercian monasteries.
The fall and looting of Constantinople effectively marked the end of the 4th Crusade, which never did get to the Holy Land. The Roman pope, at first incensed over the 'unChristian' behavior of the crusaders, apparently forgave them - to the point of lifting the ban of excommunication he had placed upon them. And why not? After all, most of the Byzantine Empire had just been added to the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1345, Turkish mercenaries in the employ of the Byzantine Empire moved into the Balkans to fight in wars against Bulgaria, Serbia and the crusader states. Apparently, the Turks liked what they saw there, for they soon returned on their own and conquered the region. In a major battle in Kosovo in 1389, the Turks defeated a Serbian army. To this day, Serbs consider that battlefield and the nearby Serbian monasteries to be hallowed ground. They absolutely reject all Albanian claims to the area.
In 1526, while Europe was writhing in the Reformation and Pope Clement VII was occupied trying to keep Francis I of France and Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire from each other's throats, a Turkish army under Suleiman the Magnificent was moving northward through the Balkans. Suleiman's army crushed Hungarian forces in the Battle of Mohacs, a city in southern Hungary near the Yugoslavian border. King Louis II of Hungary and most of his nobles were wiped out in the fighting. The king died childless, so Ferdinand of Hapsburg, who was married to the dead kings sister, claimed Hungary, Bohemia and Moravia. For nearly 400 years, the Catholic Hapsburgs ruled the most powerful empire in Central Europe. I found it interesting that the Hapsburgs claimed sovereignty over Hungary, but the Ottoman Turks occupied most of the nation for centuries.
By 1683, Turkish forces had made their way far enough northward to lay siege to Vienna. In their wake were a lot of Balkan subjects who had become really unhappy with their cruel and oppressive rule. The Serbs broke out in revolt in 1690, but were defeated, which led some 70,000 Serbs to make their way out of Turkish Serbia to Hapsburg Croatia, where they settled in the border area of Krajina in the west.
By 1831, the Ottoman Empire was shrinking, but a census revealed that about one-third of the Balkan population was Muslim, who were roundly hated by the remainder of the people who would not forget the oppressive Ottoman regime. It wasn't long before the Serbian state began making plans to seize the Turkish possessions of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro and northern Albania, all of which had Serbian populations.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire took control of Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1878, annexing the province in 1908. The 1st Balkan War broke out in 1912, as Greece and Bulgaria fought to boot the Turks out of Macedonia and most of Thrace. The following year, Greece, Serbia and Romania fought the 2nd Balkan War against Bulgaria over the division of the spoils of the 1st Balkan War. Serbia won that war and nearly doubled its territory. Encouraged by her success, Serbia then turned its attention to Austrian-controlled Bosnia and Croatia.
In 1921, a new nation appeared on the international scene - the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The constitution of the new state declared the unification of Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia, but that is not the way things worked out. Serbs were in the majority in Yugoslavia and they refused to buy into Croatian ideas concerning federalism and autonomy. Tensions mounted until, in 1929, King Alexander dissolved parliament and established a royal dictatorship. The Serbians liked the idea, for they held the bulk of the power in the new government, but not so the other ethnic groups.
In Yugoslavia, the Croatian wish for federalism was never reconciled with Great Serbian nationalism. After the assassination of Croatia's leading politician in 1929, King Alexander gave up trying to rule by consensus and imposed a royal dictatorship that lasted until World War II.
Tensions continued to mount. Prince Paul, Regent of Yugoslavia, signed an alliance with Hitler in March, 1941. Within a few days, the Serb-controlled Yugoslavian army, distrustful of Hitler and fearing concession to the Croats, overthrew the government. The following month, Germany invaded and partitioned Yugoslavia. The Croatians were so pleased to see the German invaders that they almost immediately established a puppet government controlled by Ustashi fascists. Bosnia became part of the new "Independent State of Croatia," or NDH. Italy received the Dalmatian coast and Bulgaria received Macedonia. The Germans decided to rule Serbia themselves.
Now in control, the Catholic Ustashi instituted a program designed to eliminate Serbs from Croatia. The program used deportation, execution and gunpoint conversion in a program they described as 'ethnic cleansing'. This was the first use of this term.
At this point, things got really confusing. Muslims joined with Catholic Croats to slaughter Orthodox Serbs, while Serbs gathered into 'Chetnik' guerilla units or Communist bands to fight the Ustashi, each other and the Germans. This went on until the end of World War II.
The Croats were and are an intensely Roman Catholic people. In the pogrom to 'cleanse' the NDH of the hated Serbs and their equally hated Orthodox religion, the Ustashi and Roman Catholic clergy cooperated closely.
Catholic newspapers and diocesan publications condemned non-Catholics and supported the Croatian führer (Poglovnik), Ante Pavelic. Catholic nuns marched in parades with Croatian Nazi Legionaires. Catholic priests and monks took up guns and knives and led Ustashi bands in the field, where many proved every bit as bloodthirsty as the men they led in battle. As is always the case, Rome's spin doctors have been hard at work trying to paint a positive picture of the RCC's involvement in the horrors of the Croatian Holocaust. History, supported by sworn testimony before international war crimes tribunals, photographs and documentary evidence, reveals the truth, and no amount of Vatican whitewash can hide that.
The savagery of the Ustashi cannot adequately be described in a short article such as this. In their drive to eliminate all non-Catholics from Croatian territory, they spared not the elderly, not the women, not even the children. Whole villages were wiped out, often in the most brutal manner. Bodies were thrown into the Sava River, so they would float downstream to Belgrade, the Serbian capital. Sometimes, dead Serbs were stacked on boats bearing signs designed to taunt downstream Serbs and set adrift. One such boat carried a little pile of childrens' heads, with the roasted head of a woman, perhaps the mother, on top.
This is not wartime propaganda. The information above was taken from a letter written by a Roman Catholic Croatian, Privislav Grizogono, a member of the Yugoslav Diplomatic Corps. Grizogono, Minister to Czechoslovakia and Minister to Poland, wrote the following letter to Dr. Aloisius Stepinac, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Zagreb, Croatia, on February 8, 1942. A translation of the letter was printed in the American Srbobran, a Serbian paper published in Pittsburgh, on February 24, 1943:
A British officer attached to Yugoslavian guerillas wrote:
In a book published in Rome in 1948, an Italian newspaper correspondent described an interview he had with Ustashi führer Ante Pavelic:
As I mentioned previously, Croatians were intensely Roman Catholic. What were their Catholic priests and bishops doing while all this decidedly unchristian behavior was going on? The short answer is: They were participating in it.
Roman Catholic religious joined forces with Ustashi units to forcibly 'convert' Orthodox Serbians to the Roman Catholic faith. Those to be converted essentially had to choose between death, often after torture, or adopting the Catholic religion. To help them choose, the guns, knives and hammers of the Ustashi stood at the ready. Sometimes, after converting, the Serbs were killed anyway.
Some Catholic priests were eager to use guns to bring an abundant crop of forcible conversions on a far larger scale. The words of Father Petar Pajic, published in the organ of the Archbishop of Sarajevo, bear witness to that:
Neither the Ustashi nor the Roman Catholic Church made any real effort to disguise the true nature of these forced 'conversions.' Witness this brief account of such a conversion in the February 25, 1942 edition of Nova Hrvatska, a Ustashi newspaper:
Some members of the Catholic clergy took advantage of the opportunities provided by the presence of armed Ustashi troops at these 'religious ceremonies' and collected fees from each new 'believer.' It was reported that Canon Ivan Mikan, the curate of Ogulin, actually charged converts 180 dinars apiece. This turned out to be a real cash cow. In the village of Jasenak, he collected some 80,000 dinars.
As most who read this likely know, the Roman Catholic Church is big on ceremonies and rituals. The reception into the bosom of Holy Mother Church of a number of converts - it mattered not that they converted under threat of death - often was the occasion for a religious procession. The converts, usually escorted by pious Ustashi troops, would solemnly make their way to the local Catholic church, all the while chanting their joy over having been embraced by the true church. Finally, they would sing Te Deums and offer prayers for Pope Pius XII. Then, to add to their misery, the newly-converted villages were required to notify Archbishop Stepinac by telegram of their re-christening. This was at the behest of Stepinac, who directed that he be immediately notified of any mass conversion performed anywhere in Croatia.
The news then was published in Katolicki List, the diocesan journal, and in Nova Hrvatska, the Ustashi newspaper. One of these telegrams, published on April 9, 1942, read:
Karlheinz Deschner, a Catholic church historian, writing on wartime conditions in Croatia had this to say:
In 1953, the Italian army opened part of its wartime archives to the press. One of the documents made available contained this report of Ustashi atrocities written by the Commander of the Italian "Sasari" division:
Catholic priests and friars often took a more direct hand in resolving the 'Serbian problem.' Canon Ivan Mikan, for example, personally ordered the looting of the Orthodox monastery at Gomirje and the transportation of its monks to a death camp. Father Anto, of Trasmosnjica, organized Ustashi bands to round up Orthodox Serbs, many of which he personally tortured.
Two Catholic priests, Fathers Guncevic and Marjanovich Dragutin, in their capacity as police officials, ordered the arrests of hundreds of Orthodox. Once rounded up, the priests played active roles in their torture and execution.
One of the most infamous mass slaughters of Serbs occurred in the town of Glina. German Castimir, the abbot of a nearby monastery, personally ordered the butchering of Orthodox Serbs, hundreds of whom were slaughtered inside their Orthodox church. 
During World War II, there were 71 camps and 329 prisons within the area of former Yugoslavia. Twenty-seven camps, modeled on the Nazi death camps, were in Croatia (13 Ustashi's, 8 Italian and 6 German). These camps consisted of little more than enclosed areas. There were few, if any, buildings to shelter the inmates and even these usually had no roofs. Life in these camps was nightmarish. Ustashi guards and camp administrators practiced random acts of torture and murder, usually without provocation. Inmates of these camps were shot, stabbed, beaten with boards and clubs, starved, burned and submitted to many other abuses that only the most depraved minds would consider. Prisoners were fed once a day. The 'meal' consisted of a bowl of thin 'soup.' This 'soup' consisted of a lot of water to which a very few beans had been added.
The worst of these camps was at Jasenovic, where tens of thousands of Serbs, Jews, Romanies (Gypsies) and dissenting Croats were murdered. The first commander of this death camp was Father Miroslav Filipovic, a monk of the Order of St. Francis. Filipovic, a long-time Ustashi, was utterly ruthless. Once, while exhorting Ustashi troops in a village called Drakulic, he killed an Orthodox child with his own hands. After murdering the child, this gentle Franciscan charged the Ustashi to "re-Christen these degenerates in the name of God. You follow my example."
During his tenure as commandant of the Jasenovic camp, Filipovic and his assistants, Father Zvonko Brekalo, Father Z. Lipovac and Father Vulina, supervised the deaths of at least 40,000 men, women and children.
The foregoing accounts and tons more are recorded in the files of the Yugoslav State Commission for the Investigation of War Crimes.
Estimates of the total numbers killed in the NDH, or anywhere in Yugoslavia for that matter, vary greatly. The body count varies from the 'official' Yugoslavia estimate of 600,000 to the Serbian calculation of 1,700,00. The sad fact is that no one but God can know for certain. The necessary demographic information simply does not exist. A census was conducted in Yugoslavia in 1921, and again in 1931. However, these were poorly done and are not considered reliable. World War II prevented taking a census in 1941, though a census was taken in 1948. This latter count, however, did not include war victims, only survivors.
When the war ended, Communist leader Josef Tito had the only effective military force left in Yugoslavia, so he took charge of the ravaged nation. Tito and those who followed him spent the next four decades or so putting down ethnic uprisings and managed to keep the republic of Yugoslavia intact, though the pots were boiling in her six republics and two autonomous regions. When Tito died, things really started to unravel as the various republics and ethnic regions began to pull out of the Yugoslavian Republic. Once again, armed units took the field as Croats, Serbs, Albanians and Slovenes to resume their ethnic wars. The rest is on CNN
One question that has to be asked is: Why didn't Rome stop the slaughter?
There are those who would argue that the goings-on in backwater Croatia were not known to the Pope. After all, they claim, there was a war going on. Travel was difficult. These arguments to not hold water. Croatia, the NDH, was a Fascist state affiliated with both Germany and Italy. Travel between Rome and Zagreb would was only slightly more difficult than it had been before the war.
In any case, Pius XII had tacitly recognized the NDH by sending his Legate, Monsignor Giuseppe Ramiro Marcone. The Legate, who was well-liked in Zagreb, gave the fascist salute and publicly blessed the Ustashi. The Pope's official representative encouraged Catholics to be faithful to the Holy See and openly instigated religious persecution. In their efforts to revise history, RCC apologists sometimes would have us believe that the Holy See didn't really recognize the NDH, but only maintained friendly relations. Some would have us believe that Marcone was but an Apostolic Visitator, sent to look into conditions in the NDH. However, that does not hold water. Marcone was the Dean (most senior) of the diplomatic corps in the NDH, and in all his correspondence with the Ustashi government he called himself "Sancti Sedis Legatus" or "Elegatus." He never referred to himself as "apostolic visitator." 
Certainly Archbishop Stepinac could have done something to reduce, if not end, the horrors being perpetrated by the Ustashi on the non-Catholic peoples of the NDH. He had the power. He had military authority. I think it interesting that in October of 1940, months before the German army invaded Yugoslavia, the Vatican agreed to let Stepinac become military vicar. Stepinac knew what was happening in the NDH. After all, as I have shown, he received reports of every mass conversion. Priests and monks under his authority led military units, ran death camps and often participated in the Ustashi terrorism. The Catholic journal published by his diocese actively supported the Ustashi thugs and published accounts of the gunpoint conversions. Twice during the Ustash reign of terror in the NDH, Stepinac traveled to to meet with Pius XII. It seems unlikely to me that the two 'holy men of God' did not discuss the goings-on in the NDH. In fact, Stepinac sent an official document to his Pope on May 8, 1944, in which he informed the Holy Father that to date "244,000 Orthodox Serbs" had been "converted to the Church of God." 
Within the highest levels of the Roman Catholic Church, there existed a body known as the Holy Congregation of Eastern Churches. The function of the office, which was headed by Cardinal Tiseran during this period, was to deal with the Eastern churches. Given the unobstructed flow of communications between the Vatican and the NDH, it appears likely that Cardinal Tiseran received detailed reports of every gunpoint conversion and massacre in the NDH. Surely, he was informed that more than 100,000 Orthodox Serbs were slaughtered in Croatia between April and June 19, 1941. In spite of this, or perhaps because of it, Cardinal Tiseran declared, on July 17, 1941, that Archbishop Stepinac would accomplish a great work for Catholicism in "the Independent State of Croatia… Where there are such great hopes for the conversion of those who are not of the true faith." 
The Croatian führer, Ante Pavelic, had a representative in the Vatican. Pius XII sent "special blessings to the Leader (Pavelic)," by means of this diplomat, and from him received regular reports, some of which were sent by the NDH Minister of Religions, concerning the progress of the Catholicization of the New Croatia. 
It seems a certainty that Pius XII was fully aware of events in the NDH, so why did he not intervene? Well, according to at least one authority on the Croatian Holocaust, the Pope did make a small effort on behalf of Jews in the NDH. However, when his feeble attempts received only evasive responses, he simply stopped trying. Some have pointed to his inaction as a sign that he was anti-Semitic. At least one researcher disagrees:
Though the writer of the foregoing was specifically addressing possible reasons for the Holy See's failure to act decisively on behalf of European Jews, I believe many of her arguments might equally apply when trying to understand its failure to act in the Croatian Holocaust. However, I do not believe they explain why no action was taken to stop Roman Catholic priests and monks from taking arms and leading troops in the field, or from operating death camps and personally taking a hand in torture and murder. I do not believe they explain why Rome did nothing to prevent Roman Catholic priests in the NDH from preaching persecution from their pulpits and in their publications.
The arguments certainly do not explain the Pope's actions when a jury of Croatian Catholics found Archbishop Stepinac guilty of war crimes and sentenced him to 16 years in prison. How did the pope react? He immediately excommunicated every Roman Catholic who participated in the trial and conviction of his archbishop.
The revisionists in Rome and Zagreb are busily re-writing history; painting a different picture than that shown in war time records and reports.
The Pope reiterated that the character of Cardinal Stepinac integrates this century, and that the former Zagreb archbishop was a victim of three totalitarian systems: fascism, nazism and communism. "He was subject to a farce process after he refused to separate from the Vatican and establish a Croatian church. He remained faithful to Peter's Seat and that is why he was convicted," stated Pope John Paul II. 
Now, we are seeing 'evidence' that Archbishop (later Cardinal) Stepinac actually made a great effort to bring an end to the Croatian Holocaust. Now we are being provided excerpts from Stepinac's sermons which show he was fearless and unceasing in his humanitarian striving.
Then Archbishop Stepinac, military vicar and leading Catholic ordinary in the "Independent State of Croatia," the man who never visited the Jasenovac death camp and who at best turned a blind eye to the atrocities conducted with the blessings and guidance of Catholic priests and monks is now a Catholic saint.
I have yet to learn the nature of the two qualifying miracles attributed to "Saint Stepinac."
The revisionists being heard from are not just Roman Catholics. There is a body of Croatian Jews who have been trying to convince Israel's Yad Vashem to posthumously add Alojzije Stepinac to the list of Righteous. Two requests were sent; one in 1970 and another in 1994. Both times, the requests were denied. Iris Rosenberg, of Yad Vashem, explained in a letter that "persons who assisted Jews but simultaneously collaborated or were closely linked with a Fascist regime which took part in the Nazi orchestrated persecution of Jews may be disqualified for the Righteous title."
The requests were made by former Croatian Jews now living in Israel. The official Jewish organization today has made no such nomination to Yad Vashem. 
There can be no denying that Stepinac and other Roman Catholic religious in the NDH did help many Croatian Jews to survive the Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia. There is ample documentation to that effect. These good works, however, do not in any way balance the great evil unleashed in the NDH and actively supported by Stepinac and other RCC religious in that nation. It is a simple matter, however, when focusing solely on one's own values, to ignore other, even larger, issues. Witness, for example, this comment by Louis Breier, president of the Jewish community in the USA, made just two days after Stepinac was arrested in 1946:
And in Croatia, revisionists are resurrecting the ghosts of the Ustashi, as evidenced by this recent report from Croatia:
In all fairness, it must be mentioned that not everyone in Croatia is riding the bandwagon to revise history:
The Ustashi supporters also have a powerful ally in the Catholic Church in Croatia. The Church, led during the war by Archbishop Alojzije Stepinac, was a prominent backer of the Ustashi regime. It forcibly converted tens of thousands of Orthodox Serbs and did not denounce the government's roundup and slaughter of Jews and Serbs…
What I have described of the Roman Catholic Church's conduct in the Balkans is true to pattern. Any honest student of history can see the same cruelty and bloody pattern of forced conversions everywhere she was not restrained by a powerful government. Look to alignment with the Fascists in the Spanish Civil War. Examine her conduct when travelling with the Conquistadores in the Americas. Ask the Filippinos. Or the Albighenses. Ask any of the victims of the Inquisitions. And then give thanks to God that you live in a land where this beast is kept chained up.
A final word from a Croatian Jew.
1. Paris, Edmond, "Genocide in Satellite Croatia 1941-45," Chicago:The American Institute for Balkan Affairs (1961), Introduction
2. Sowards, Steven, "Twenty-five Lectures On Modern Balkan History (The Balkans In The Age Of Nationalism)," Lecture 3: The principles of Ottoman rule in the Balkans, Michigan State University (1966) http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lecture3.html
3. Sowards, Steven "Twenty-five Lectures On Modern Balkan History (The Balkans In The Age Of Nationalism)," Lecture 19: The traditional regimes and the challenge of Nazism (1996), http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect19.html
4. Avro Manhattan, "The Vatican's Holocaust," Chapter 7, Ozark Books (1986), Springfield, MO
6. Mitchell, Ruth "The Serbs Choose War," New York:Doubleday Doran (1943), pp. 244-45
7. Maclean, Fitzroy; a British emissary to the Yugoslavian guerrillas, quoted by Alexander Kimel in the e-magazine "Holocaust - Understanding and Prevention," http://www.ios.com/~kimel19/croatia.html
8. Malaparte, Curzio & Foligno, Cesare (Translator), "Kaputt," Northwestern University Press (1995)
9. Avro Manhattan, "The Vatican's Holocaust," Chapter 7, Ozark Books (1986), Springfield, MO
10. Katolicki Tjednik, No. 35, August 31, 1941
11. Deschner, Karlheinz "Abermalsrahen der Hahn," Gunther (1962), Stuttgart, Germany
12. "Il Tempo" (Rome) September 10, 1953
13. For a more complete list of Catholic religious who bloodied their hands in Croatia, see "Martyrdom of the Serbs," (Serbian Eastern Orthodox Diocese USA, Chicago:Palendech's Press (1943), p. 176)
14. Gorlitz, Walter "Der Zweite Weltkrieg 1939-1945", Stuttgart (1952), p. 125
15. Manhattan, Avro "The Vatican's Holocaust," Ozark Books (1986), Springfield, MO, pp. 76-80
16. Manhattan, Avro "The Vatican's Holocaust," Ozark Books (1986), Springfield, MO, pp. 100-104
19. Zuccotti, Susan "The Italians and the Holocaust: Persecutiuon, Rescue, and Survival," University of Nebraska Press (1996)
20. Myers, Sonja "Bosnian Serbs, Too, Have Vowed "Never Again,"" Houston Chronicle; Outlook; March 16, 1995. (Myers is a president of Texas American-Serbian Community based in Houston)
21. Czuczka, Tony (AP), "Croatians Putting Their Own Spin On Nazi History," © Seattle Times, May 22, 1997
22. "Stepinac Integrates This Century," Vecernji list, October 8, 1998, p. 2. , quoted on Website: Religions in Croatia: Catholic Church in Croatia - Past and Present, http://www.dalmatia.net/croatia/religion/index.htm
23. Taken from the homily Stepinac delivered in the Zagreb Cathedral on October 24, 1942.
24. Petric, Tomislav (Croation Information Center ) in a press release issued in Rome and Zagreb, July 3, 1998; quoted on Website: Religions in Croatia: Catholic Church in Croatia - Past and Present, http://www.dalmatia.net/croatia/religion/index.htm
25. Yad Vashem (The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority), was established in Jerusalem by the Israeli Knesset in 1953. Its main objective is not only to keep alive the memory of Jewish victims of the atrocities of WWII, but also to honor on those brave Gentiles who risked their lives to save the Jews throughout Europe. Yad Vashem therefore established a special honor for The Righteous among the Nations.
To date, some 70 Croatians have been awarded "The Certificate of Honor'' and "The Medal of the Righteous'' from Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. Their names are inscribed on "The Honor Wall in the Garden of the Righteous'' in Jerusalem.
26. Hedges, Chris "Fascists Reborn as Croatia's Founding Fathers," April 12, 1997, ©The New York Times Company (1997), available on the Web at http://www.codoh.com/newsdesk/970412.HTML
Dedijer, Vladimir, ed., "The Yugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican: The Croatian Massacre of the Serbs during World War II," Buffalo, NY: Prometheus (1992)
Eton, Peter, "Conspiracy of Silence," London: Angus (1960)
Paris, Edmond, "Genocide in Satellite Croatia, 1941-1945: A Record of Racial and Religious Persecutions and Massacres," Chicago:American Institute for Balkan Affairs (1961)
Serbian Eastern Orthodox Diocese, USA, "Martyrdom of the Serbs: Persecutions of the Serbian Orthodox Church and Massacre of the Serbian People," Chicago:Palandech (1943)
Maclean, Fitzroy, "Escape to Adventure," Boston:Little (1950)
Ilija Ivanovic, "Witness to Jasenovac's Hell," Dallas Publishing Company (2002)
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